In-Vitro Studies

Claims are regularly made in the media and by various “authorities” that there’s no evidence for homeopathy. Whether this declaration is made through simple ignorance, stupidity or with the deliberate intent to deceive, would make an excellent topic for investigation. Either way, the assertion that there’s no evidence for homeopathy is plainly and clearly wrong. On our research pages you will find abstracts from over 300 human, animal, plant and in-vitro scientific studies that attest the reality that there is indeed evidence for homeopathy, and lots of it.

On the References List page can be found over 5,000 homeopathy research evidence base references with links to each.

We would like to thank Robert Medhurst, Iris Bell M.D., Ph.D., and Peter Gold for their exceptional work is assembling this knowledge base.

In-Vitro Studies

  1. Aziz DM, Enbergs H. Stimulation of bovine sperm mitochondrial activity by homeopathic dilutions of monensin. Homeopathy. 2005 Oct, 94, 4, 229-32. Mitochondrial activity is an important marker for the health of sperm. It’s linked to sperm motility and in research laboratories monensin is commonly used as an inhibitor for sperm mitochondrial activity. The researchers in this study examined the effects of the 5X to the 14X homeopathic potencies of monensin on the activity of the mitochondria of sperm taken from mature bulls. All of the potencies produced a stimulatory effect on the bull sperm mitochondrial activity, with the 9X producing the strongest of these effects


  1. Belon P, Cumps J, Ennis M, et al. Inhibition of Human Basophil Degranulation by Successive Histamine Dilutions. Inflammation Research, 48, Supplement 1, 1999, S17-18. In this controversial, blinded multi-centre trial (which confirmed earlier studies published in Nature in 1988), homeopathic potencies of histamine were found to substantially reduce the potential for degranulation by sensitised basophils when exposed to allergens.


  1. Belon P., Cumps J., Ennis M., Mannaioni P.F., Roberfroid M., Sainte-Laudy J., Wiegant F.A. Histamine Dilutions Modulate Basophil Activation. Inflammation Research, 2004, May, 53, 5, 181-8. In this study, which was a replication of work by Jacques Benveniste published in Nature in 1988, the researchers attempted to use homeopathic dilutions of histamine to inhibit the activation of human basophils exposed to an inflammatory mediator. The study was carried out blind in 4 separate laboratories. Histamine dilutions equivalent to 30X and 38X were found to inhibit basophil activation and subsequent histamine release.


  1. Casaroli- Marano RP, Alegre J, Campos B. Infrared Changes in Potentised Solutions. Revista Homeopatica, 1998, 38, 5- 12. In this experiment, 70% alcohol/water solutions were serially diluted 1 in 100 up to 30 times, with and without succussion at each step. On examination of each of these significant spectral differences were found between the solutions that were succussed and those that were not, indicating that dilution and succussion may produce structural changes to the molecules in the solution. This may provide further evidence for the possibility of a “memory” of water.


  1. Chirila M, Hristescu S, Manda G, Neagu M, Olinescu A. The Action of Succussed Substances on the Human Lymphocytes and PMN Granulocytes in Vitro Stimulated with Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and Zymosin Opsonised (ZO). Berlin Journal on Research in Homoeopathy, Congress Report, 1991, June, 1, 3, 166-167. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from people with a history of allergy to bee products (Group 1), and from people who were immunosuppressed (Group 2). These cells were incubated in culture media supplemented with a succussed water control, various homoeopathic potencies of bee venom (for Group 1 cells), or cortisone (for Group 2 cells), and the cells were grown. The proliferation of Group 1 cells was inhibited by the potencies of bee venom, indicating that these remedies may be useful in the management of allergies to bee products. The effects of the potencies of cortisone on the Group 2 cells varied from stimulation to inhibition.


  1. Chirumbolo S, Signorini A, Bianchi I, Lippe G, Bellavite P. Effects of Homoeopathic Preparations of Organic Acids and Minerals on the Oxidative Metabolism of Human Neutrophils. British Homeopathic Journal, 1993, 82, 237-244. The in vitro adhesion and superoxide production of human neutrophils were monitored in the presence of various homoeopathic medicines. Of these, Sulphur 6X, Manganum phos 6X and 8X, and Magnesium phos 6X and 8X all lead to a 15-30% increase in these parameters.


  1. Delbancut A, Barrouillet MA, Maury-Brachet R, Boudou A, Dorfman P, Cambar J. Mechanistic Approach to the Effect of High Dilutions of Cadmium to Protect from Cytotoxic Cadmium doses in Renal Tubular Cell Cultures. International Research Group on Very Low Dose and High Dilution Effects, 1993 Giri Meeting, BHJ, April, 1994, 83, 84-100 Material concentrations of cadmium have strong toxic effects on renal tubules. The researchers involved in this study found that pre-treatment with homeopathic cadmium 40X, and subsequent exposure to material concentrations of cadmium, led to a significant reduction in cadmium induced damage.


  1. Enbergs H. Effects of the homeopathic preparation Engystol on interferon-gamma production by human T-lymphocytes. Immunol Invest. 2006, 35, 1, 19-27. In one of the few experiments carried out in this area to date, researchers conducting this study collected T-lymphocytes from 30 healthy human volunteers to investigate the ability or otherwise of a homeopathic combination product to increase the production of interferon-gamma from these cells. After exposure to various concentrations of this combination, when compared to control cells, interferon-gamma producing cell levels were increased by a means of 20.9% to over 24% with no dose-dependence of the effect at the concentrations tested.


  1. Fougeray S, Moubry K, Vallot N, Bastide M. Effect of High Dilutions of Epidermal Growth Factor on in-vitro Proliferation of Keratinocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines. 6th Giri Symposium, Munich, Oct 1992, reported in British Homeopathic Journal, 93, 82. In this experiment, it was shown that 19X and 45X homeopathic potencies of Epidermal Growth Factor inhibited the proliferation of Keratinocyte and Fibroblast Cell Lines.


  1. Fleisbach A, Fejfar V, Spranger J. Effects of Homoeopathic Potencies: Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Potentised Copper Sulphate Dilutions. British Homeopathic Journal, 2000, 89, Supplement 1, S65. Material concentrations of copper sulphate inhibit the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in this study, researchers determined what effect if any a homeopathic medicine made from copper sulphate would have on this organism. On exposure to homeopathically potentised copper sulphate, a potency dependant inhibition or enhancement of growth was seen.


  1. Gebhardt R Antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects in HepG2 cells of a homeopathic remedy and its constituent plant tinctures tested separately or in combination. Arzneimittelforschung. 2003, 53, 12, 823-30. This laboratory study examined the effect of a homeopathic combination product and its separate components for antioxidative, antiproliferative and biochemical effects on liver cells grown in laboratory tissue-culture. Protective effects against oxidation of the cells by tert-butyl hydroperoxide were shown by Carduus, China and Nux mosch, and the combination provided the same level of protection as these 3 individual remedies combined. Carduus, Chelidonium, Colocynthis and Veratrum alb all showed an antiproliferative effect against cell proliferation agents on the cells and the combination exhibited the same effect. Carduus and the combination both increased the conjugation effectiveness of glutathione.


  1. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P. Antiviral Action of Euphorbium Compositum and its Componants. Forschende Komplementarmedizin Und Klassiche Naturheikunde, 2001, 8, 207-212. In this in-vitro study, human cell cultures were infected with influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human rhinovirus or herpes simplex virus type1, and then treated with Euphorbium compositum, a homeopathic complex. Various anti-viral drugs such as acyclovir, rabavirin and amatadine were used as positive controls against which to compare the results of the complex. When compared with control cells exposed to the same concentration of ethanol used in the complex, the homeopathic complex showed anti-viral properties comparable to the effects of the drugs against respiratory syncitial virus and herpes simplex virus type 1.


  1. Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Fallier-Becker P, Weiser M. Influence of homeopathically processed Coenzyme Q10 on proliferation and redifferentiation of endothelial cells. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004, Oct, 11, 5,:267-73. CoEnzyme Q10, known for its ability to regulate cell metabolism and proliferation, was assessed for its ability to promote the same functions after being homeopathically potentised. Undifferentiated human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures were exposed to various potencies of CoQ10 (5X to 10X) The cell division rate was then assessed by flow cytometry and cell differentiation determined by von Willebrand factor expression. The 7X to 10X potencies of CoQ10, and particularly the 8X potency, increased cell proliferation while none of the potencies appeared to enhance cell differentiation.


  1. Moss VA, Roberts A, Simpson K. Action of Remedies on Movement of Macrophages and Leucocytes. Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 113-114. Laboratory measurements of guinea pig macrophages and human leucocytes exposed to the homoeopathic remedies Belladonna, Hepar sulph, Pyrogenium, Silica and Staphylococcinum, showed that these remedies caused an increase in the movement of these cells through a Boyden micropore filter. This may indicate that the remedies produce an increase in this aspect of immune competence.


  1. Oberbaum M, Glatthaar-Saalmüller B, Stolt P, Weiser M. Antiviral activity of Engystol: an in vitro analysis. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct, 11, 5, 855-62. Cultured tissue cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), human rhinovirus (HRV), adeno 5 (A5V) and respiratory syncytial virus were exposed to Engystol, a homeopathic combination product. These cells were then assayed for virus clearance using plaque reduction, virus titration and Elisa methods. The results of these assays showed an 80% reduction in HSV-1 specific proteins, a 73% reduction in A5V specific proteins and a reduction in infectivity of RSV by 37% and HRV by 20%.


  1. Pathak S, Multani AS, Banerji P, Banerji P. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer. Int J Oncol. 2003 Oct;23(4):975-82. In this uncontrolled study, 15 people suffering from various intracranial tumors were treated with a combination Ruta 6C and homoeopathic calcium phosphate. All forms of tumors, particularly gliomas, were found to regress under treatment with these medicines and the trial subjects also exhibited an increase in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. Further examination of a possible mechanism for the tumor-killing effect of this combination found that it was due to cancer cell telomere erosion, causing a selective early death of these cells.


  1. Poitevin B, Davenas E, Benveniste J. In Vitro Immunological Degranulation of Human Basophils is Modulated by Lung Histamine and Apis mellifica. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 1988, 25, 439-444. In this study, potentised dilutions of Apis mellifica and Histamine were found to significantly reduce basophil degranulation in vitro.


  1. Ramachandran C, Nair PK, Clèment RT, Melnick SJ. Investigation of cytokine expression in human leukocyte cultures with two immune-modulatory homeopathic preparations. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 May;13(4):403-7. The aim of the researchers from Miami Children’s Hospital in Florida who carried out this study was to determine the effects of homeopathics on cellular signalling pathways, specifically, the effects of 2 anti-influenza homeopathic combination products on normal human leukocyte cultures. When the researchers compared the effects of the homeopathic combinations to 20% ethanol solvent controls, it was found that exposure to either of the homeopathic combinations stimulated the production of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines by these cells.


  1. Singh L.M., Gupta G. Antiviral Efficacy of Homeopathic Drugs against Animal Viruses. British Homeopathic Journal, 1985, July, 74, 3. Researchers at the Indian Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow carried out this study to determine the inhibiting effects, if any, of various potencies of 10 homeopathic remedies on chicken embryo virus and simliki forest virus, a virus capable of causing encephalitis, paralysis ad death in mice. Homeopathic typhoidinum 200C, hydrophobinum 1M, tuberculinum 1M, nux vomica 200C and malandrinum 1M all produced 100% inhibition of the chicken embryo virus.


  1. Sukul NC, Sukul A, Sinhababu SP. Potentised Mercuric Chloride and Mercuric Iodide enhance Alpha Amylase activity in vitro. Homeopathy, 2002, 91, 217-220. In part a repetition of a trial published in 1954, researchers determined that Mercuric chloride 30C and Mercuric iodide 30C, both of which theoretically should contain no molecules of either of the original substance, were able to promote the hydrolysis of starch in vitro. This tends to support the view that the water molecules in the remedy retain the “memory” of the original molecule through the homeopathic potentisation process.


  1. Sunila ES, Kuttan R, Preethi KC, Kuttan G. Dynamized Preparations in Cell Culture. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009, 6, 2, 257-263. This article describes a series of tests carried out at the Amala Cancer Research Centre in Kerala, India, on cells grown in the laboratory using various homeopathically prepared medicines to ascertain their effects on these cells. Mother tincture, 30C and 200C potencies of various substances as well as potentised alcohol controls were separately added to the individual growth media in which certain lymphoma, carcinoma, fibroblast and ovary cells were grown. After analysing the effects of these materials on the various cell cultures, it was found that some of these caused significant cell death during short and long term incubation when compared to alcohol controls. It was also found that some of the test materials inhibited thymidine uptake in lung fibroblasts (therefore inhibiting growth), Thuja, Hydrastis and Carcinosin specifically, induced cell death in lymphoma cells, and Carcinosin was able to induce the expression of p53, which has been found to be capable of causing tumor suppression.


  1. Walchli C, Baumgartner S, Bastide MJ. Effect of low doses and high homeopathic potencies in normal and cancerous human lymphocytes: an in vitro isopathic study. Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jun, 12, 5, 421-7. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pretreatment with either low doses, or homeopathic potencies, of cadmium chloride on the ability of normal lymphocyte or cancerous lymphocyte cultures to withstand exposure to toxic doses of cadmium. Normal lymphocytes exposed to toxic levels of cadmium which were pretreated with either low dose of cadmium or potentised cadmium showed a significant increase in viability. This effect was the same in the cancerous lymphocytes except that these cells showed no increase in viability after pre-treatment with potentised cadmium.


  1. Witt CM, Bluth M, Albrecht H, Weisshuhn TE, Baumgartner S, Willich SN. The In-Vitro Evidence for an Effect of High Homeopathic Potencies–a Systematic Review of the Literature. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2007 Jun;15(2):128-38. This was essentially a meta-analysis of all of the in-vitro studies that have attempted to demonstrate a homeopathic effect to date, carried out by Professor Claudia Witt and colleagues at the Department of Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany. The aim here was to search all appropriate databases for relevant studies, determine which studies met the quality criteria set by the researchers, and then to determine which, if any of these, exhibited a statistically significant effect in this area. 67 papers were identified that met the quality criteria and of these, 73% found that an effect from high potencies can be demonstrated. The majority of these studies involved the effects of potentised substances on basophils. Replication of some of these studies has been carried out.


  1. Khuda-Bukhsh AR, De A, Das, D, Dutta S, Boujedaini N. Analysis of the capability of ultra-highly diluted glucose to increase glucose uptake in arsenite-stressed bacteria Escherichia coli. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine: Vol 9, 8, August, 2011, 901-912. Scientists from the University of Kalyani in India and Boiron Labs in France conducted this analysis to determine the effects of homeopathically prepared glucose 30C on glucose uptake in E.coli. The bacteria were stressed by exposure to sodium arsenite thus increasing their glucose uptake. They were then exposed to a 1% glucose solution, 3% glucose solution, homeopathically prepared glucose 30C, or an inactive control. Glucose uptake, specific activities of hexokinase and glucokinase, membrane potential, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and expression of glucose permease in E. coli were then analysed at two different time intervals. On examination of the results it was shown that when compared to controls, glucose 30C was associated with changes similar to those induced by the 1% and 3% glucose solutions.


  1. de Oliveira CC, Abud AP, de Oliveira SM, Guimarães Fde S, de Andrade LF, Di Bernardi RP, Coletto EL, Kuczera D, Da Lozzo EJ, Gonçalves JP, Trindade Eda S, Buchi Dde F. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Oct 26; 11:101. In this trial, researchers from the Universidade Federal do Paraná in Brazil used mice as well as human and mouse derived immune cells to determine the effects of three combinations of homeopathically prepared substances on various immune functions of the cells in vitro and the mice in vivo. Human leukemia cells, cancer cells and normal human macrophages were cultured and exposed to the three combinations, labelled as M1, M2 and M8. Mice were exposed to M1, M2 and M3 and their macrophages, lymph nodes and bone marrow cells assessed with specific reference to cell viability, oxidative response, lipid peroxidation, bone marrow and lymph node cells immunophenotyping. Assessment on all human derived cells was via cytotoxicity, cytokines released and NF kappa B activation after in vitro treatment. Controls were used, multiples of tests were carried out and the researchers were blinded to the sources of the materials tested. On final analysis and in comparison to controls, no cytotoxicity to the homeopathic complexes were seen and all three complexes were associated with a significant stimulation of specific aspects of both in vitro and in vivo immune functions.



  1. Ive EC, Couchman IM, Reddy L. Therapeutic Effect of Arsenicum album on Leukocytes. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(3):3979-87. Scientists from South Africa’s Durban University of Technology performed this in vitro study to determine the effects of various succussed and unsuccussed homeopathically prepared Arsenic trioxide (Arsenicum album) on human T lymphocytes grown in tissue culture. Cells were intoxicated with arsenic trioxide and then exposed to succussed and unsuccussed Arsenicum 6C, succussed and unsuccussed Arsenicum 30C, succussed and unsuccussed Arsenicum 200C or a control substance for 24, 48 or 72 hours. Cells were assessed for viability at baseline and at these three data points. After the counts from these data points were assessed it was shown that when compared to controls, all of the homeopathically prepared Arsenicum potencies provided a statistically significant increase in cell viability. These results were unaffected by whether the material was succussed or unsuccussed, but were affected by the length of exposure time to the remedy.


  1. De A, Das D, Dutta S, Chakraborty D, Boujedaini N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Potentized homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C inhibits intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and up-regulates expression of arsenic resistance gene in arsenine-exposed bacteria Escherichia coli. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012 Feb;10(2):210-27. In more useful work from India’s University of Kalyani, researchers looked into the effects of homeopathically prepared Arsenic trioxide (Arsenicum album) on arsenic toxicity in E. coli. The bacteria were grown in a sub-bacteriocidal concentration of sodium arsenite and exposed to Arsenicum 30C or several controls via a randomised schedule and were assessed for glucose uptake, specific activities of hexokinase, lipid peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, intra- and extra-cellular sodium arsenite content, cell growth, cell membrane potential, DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species, adenosine triphosphate, free glutathione content and expressions of arsB and ptsG genes. On analysis and in comparison to the controls used, it was found that the use of Arsenicum 30C was associated with a reduced arsenic toxicity in E. coli by inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species and increasing the tolerance to arsenite.


  1. Coelho Moreira CO, de Fátima Ferreira Borges da Costa J, Leal MF, Ferreira de Andrade E, Rezende AP, Imbeloni AA, Pereira Carneiro Muniz JA, de Arruda Cardoso Smith M, Burbano RR, de Assumpção PP. Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by activated Cebus apella macrophages treated with a complex homeopathic immune response modifiers. Homeopathy. 2012 Jan;101(1):74-9. In more work done to validate the effects of the homeopathic combination, Canova, researchers at Brazil’s Universidade Federal do Pará investigated the in vitro effects of this product on macrophages and the subsequent effects of these upon lymphocytes. Macrophages from tufted capuchin monkeys in culture were exposed to Canova. These macrophages were then co-cultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes. The analysis of Canova effects in the cultured lymphocytes was performed according to the cell cycle phase using flow cytometry and further assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Interferon gamma and Interleukin-5 cytokines. On examination of the results it was shown that the use of Canova was associated with an increase in the number of proliferation lymphocytes and in the levels of interferon gamma and interleukin-5 cytokines.


  1. Guimarães FS, Abud AP, Oliveira SM, Oliveira CC, César B, Andrade LF, Donatti L, Gabardo J, Trindade ES, Buchi DF. Stimulation of lymphocyte anti-melanoma activity by co-cultured macrophages activated by complex homeopathic medication. BMC Cancer. 2009 Aug 22;9:293. This study, carried out by a team from Brazil’s Universidade Federal do Paraná, sought to determine the effects of a complex of homeopathically prepared ingredients on the in-vitro response to melanoma cells. To do this, mouse lymph node lymphocytes were co-cultured with macrophages in the presence or absence of the homeopathic complex, and B16F10 melanoma cells; a particularly aggressive melanoma cell line. When compared to controls, it was found that the lymphocyte and macrophage cultures exposed to the homeopathic complex had greater anti-melanoma activity, reducing melanoma cell density and increasing the numbers of lysed tumor cells.


  1. Frenkel M, Mishra BM, Sen S, Yang P, Pawlus A, Vence L, Leblanc A, Cohen L, Banerji P, Banerji P. Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on breast cancer cells. International Journal of Oncology. 2010, 36: 395-403. This University of Texas study was done to determine the in-vitro cytotoxic effects of homeopathically potentised Carcinosin 30C, Conium 3C, Phytolacca 200C, Thuja 30C, and succussed and unsuccussed negative solvent controls on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines in tissue culture and a normal human cell line in tissue culture. On analysis, it was shown the use of homeopathically prepared Carcinosin and Phytolacca were associated with a reduction in the viability of the adenocarcinomatous cells, an increase in the rate of cell death, a preferential loss of telomeric DNA and early apoptosis induction from and of these cells.


  1. Venard C, Boujedaini N, Mensah-Nyagan AG, Patte-Mensah C. Comparative Analysis of Gelsemine and Gelsemium sempervirens Activity on Neurosteroid Allopregnanolone Formation in the Spinal Cord and Limbic System. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:407617. Scientists at France’s University of Strasbourg built on previous work done on Gelsemium by exposing rat limbic and spinal cord tissue to 5C, 9C and 15C homeopathic preparations of Gelsemium and gelsemine, one of Gelsemium’s active constituents, to determine their effects on pain and anxiety at a cellular level. During this process it was shown that the 5C potencies of both remedies, and to a lesser extent the 9C potencies of both remedies, increased the conversion of progesterone to allopregnanolone in these tissues, indicating that exposure to these remedies was associated with an analgesic and anxiolytic effect.


  1. Guimaraes F de SF, Andrade LF, Martins ST, Abud APR, Sene RV, Wanderer C, Tiscornia I, Bollati-Fogollin M, Buchi DDEF, Trindade ES. In vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of a Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8) treatment in a murine melanoma model. BMC Cancer 2010, 10:113 doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-113. This Brazilian study adds to previous work done to determine the anticancer effects of a combination product containing 10 homeopathically protentised substances, of which Calc carb 5C is the primary ingredient. B16F10 melanoma cells (a particularly aggressive cell line) in tissue culture were co-cultured with macrophages and lymphocytes. These were exposed to the homeopathic combination product and the results compared with an uninocculated control. On analysis it was shown that the homeopathic combination product was associated with an increase in the capacity of the lymphocytes in the tissue culture to destroy growing cancer cells, as well as an increase in the proportion of CD25+ lymphocytes and an increase in lymphocyte viability.


  1. Burbano RR, Leal MF, da Costa JB, Bahia Mde O, de Lima PD, Khayat AS, Seligman IC, de Assumpção PP, Buchi F, Smith A. Lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by activated human macrophages treated with Canova. Homeopathy. 2009 Jan;98(1):45-8. In this study, researchers from the Universidade Federal do Pará in Brazil add to work previously done in this area by using a homeopathic mixture referred to as Canova (homeopathically potentised Aconitum napellus, Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Lachesis muta, Thuja occidentalis) to determine its effect on the mitotic index of phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes. These lymphocytes were cultured in media containing Canova and their mitotic index was compared with lymphocytes cultured without it. The mitotic index is a measure of the proliferation status of a cell population. On analysis of the results it was found that the addition of Canova to the culture media was associated with an increase in the proliferation (mitotic) index.


  1. Patil CR, Salunkhe PS, Gaushal MH, Gadekar AR, Agrawal AM, Surana SJ. Immunomodulatory activity of Toxicodendron pubescens in experimental models. Homeopathy. 2009 Jul;98(3):154-9. This adds to previous work done in this area and focuses on the capacity of raw and homeopathically prepared Rhus tox to modulate immune functions, using parameters such as chemotaxis, oxidative processes and phagocytosis as a means of measuring outcomes. Mother tincture, 6C, 30C, 200C and 1M homeopathically prepared potencies of Rhus tox were used and all homeopathic potencies, apart from the 200C and 1M, as well as mother tincture, were found to intensify immune function.


  1. Gupta G, Srivastava AK. In-vitro activity of Thuja occidentalis Linn. against human pathogenic aspergilla. The Homoeopathic Heritage, Vol. 27, No. 1, January 2002, 5-12. This Indian research investigated whether or not homeopathically prepared Thuja has an in-vitro fungicidal effect on pathogenic Aspergillus niger and flavus. Pathogenic strains of these organisms were grown by standard laboratory means and were exposed to 30C, 200C, 1M, 10M and 50M homeopathically prepared potencies of Thuja occidentalis as well as two negative controls I(water and ethanol) and a positive control (Ketaconazole). After incubation the cultures where measured to determine the extent of growth inhibition. All of the Thuja potencies showed some effect against both species of aspergillus, but when compared to the negative controls, the 30c and 200C potencies showed the greatest effect. In addition, the 30C potency proved to have a 93% equivalence to Ketoconazole and the 200C exhibited an 89% equivalence.


  1. Queiroz AO, Xavier SCC, Faria KG, Bernardo RR, Leitão TCA. Evaluation of Trypanosoma cruzi 30dH biotherapic: an in-vitro study. Int J High Dilution Research, 5, 17 (2006), 14-16. In this Brazilian study, researchers set out to determine whether or not exposure to a 30X homeopathically prepared medicine made from Trypanosoma cruzi had any effect on specific IgM and IgG antibody production in mice. The study confirmed the effect of this preparation and found that pretreatrment with the Trypanosoma cruzi 30X was associated with a 50% reduction in mortality, an increase in specific antibody and a reduction in the numbers of the parasite in the blood of mice infected with this organism.


  1. Chirumbolo S, Brizzi M, Ortolani R, Vella A, Bellavite P. Inhibition of CD203c membrane up-regulation in human basophils by high dilutions of histamine: a controlled replication study. Inflamm Res. 2009 November; 58(11): 755–764. This is one of quite a few studies that have been carried out to investigate the action of homeopathically prepared histamine on human basophils. In this paper, various homeopathic potencies of histamine and water controls were tested for their capacity to influence the responsiveness of basophils to anti-IgE antibodies. Assays were carried out using flow cytometry. After the results had been collected and calculations performed, it was revealed that histamine, homeopathically prepared to 2C, 12C, 14C, 15C and 16C, when compared to water controls, had a significant inhibitory capacity on the functions of human basophils.


  1. Montagnier L, Issa JA, Ferris S, Mntagnier J-L, Lavall C. Electromagnetic Signals Are Produced by Aqueous Nanostructures Derived from Bacterial DNA Sequences Interdiscip Sci Comput Life Sci (2009) 1: 81–90. In this ground-breaking work by Nobel Prize winning scientist, Luc Montagnier, it was shown that bacterial DNA, at dilutions equivalent to those seen in 18X homeopathic potencies, has the capacity to emit objectively detectable and specific electromagnetic signals. This work goes some way towards confirming the notion that even at high dilutions, physical substances are capable of leaving an electromagnetic remnant of their physical form. In discussions on these findings, Montagnier was quoted as saying, “I can’t say that homeopathy is right in everything. What I can say now is that the high dilutions are right. High dilutions of something are not nothing. They are water structures which mimic the original molecules.”


  1. Malarczyk E, Kochmanska-Rdest J, Wilkolazka AJ. Influence of very low doses of mediators on fungal laccase activity – nonlinearity beyond imagination Nonlinear Biomedical Physics 2009, 3:10doi:10.1186/1753-4631-3-10. In this work, carried out in the Biochemistry Department of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Poland, scientists looked at the capacity of very low doses of biochemical mediators to facilitate the action of the enzyme laccase, which is normally used in various industrial applications. These mediators, ABTS and HBT, are normally used at material levels to facilitate the action of the enzyme, but in this study, it was shown that several homeopathic potencies of these mediators, homeopathically potentised to the equivalent of 1C to 10C, had the capacity to increase the activity of laccase. The potencies associated with the highest level of activity were HBT 7C and 8C, and ABTS 4C and 5C.
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